The role of the Azotobacter vinelandii HscA/HscB cochaperone system in ISC-mediated iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis has been investigated in vitro by using CD and EPR spectrometry to monitor the effect of HscA, HscB, MgATP, and MgADP on the time course of cluster transfer from [2Fe-2S]IscU to apo-Isc ferredoxin. CD spectra indicate that both HscB and HscA interact with [2Fe-2S]IscU and the rate of cluster transfer was stimulated more than 20-fold in the presence stoichiometric HscA and HscB and excess MgATP. No stimulation was observed in the absence of either HscB or MgATP, and cluster transfer was found to be an ATP-dependent reaction based on concomitant phosphate production and the enhanced rates of cluster transfer in the presence of KCl which is known to stimulate HscA ATPase activity. The results demonstrate a role of the ISC HscA/HscB cochaperone system in facilitating efficient [2Fe-2S] cluster transfer from the IscU scaffold protein to acceptor proteins and that [2Fe-2S] cluster transfer from IscU is an ATP-dependent process. The data are consistent with the proposed regulation of the HscA ATPase cycle by HscB and IscU [Silberg, J. J., Tapley, T. L., Hoff, K. G., and Vickery, L. E. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 53924-53931], and mechanistic proposals for coupling of the HscA ATPase cycle with cluster transfer from [2Fe-2S]IscU to apo-IscFdx are discussed.