Mechanism of FAD reduction and role of active site residues His-225 and Tyr-259 in Arthrobacter globiformis dimethylglycine oxidase: analysis of mutant structure and catalytic function

Biochemistry. 2006 Sep 19;45(37):11151-61. doi: 10.1021/bi061094d.


Residues His-225 and Tyr-259 are located close to the FAD in the dehydrogenase active site of the bifunctional dimethylglycine oxidase (DMGO) of Arthrobacter globiformis. We have suggested [Leys, D., Basran, J., and Scrutton, N. S. (2003) EMBO J. 22, 4038-4048] that these residues are involved in abstraction of a proton from the substrate amine group of dimethylglycine prior to C-H bond breakage and FAD reduction. To investigate this proposal, we have isolated two mutant forms of DMGO in which (i) His-225 is replaced with Gln-225 (H225Q mutant) and (ii) Tyr-259 is replaced with Phe-259 (Y259F mutant). Both mutant enzymes retain the ability to oxidize substrate, but the steady-state turnover of the Y259F mutant is attenuated more than 200-fold. Only modest changes in kinetic parameters are observed for the H225Q mutant during steady-state turnover. Stopped-flow studies indicate that the rate of FAD reduction in the Y259F enzyme is substantially impaired by a factor of approximately 1500 compared with that of the wild-type enzyme, suggesting a key role for this residue in the reductive half-reaction of the enzyme. The kinetics of FAD reduction in the H225Q enzyme are complex and involve three discrete kinetic phases that are attributed to different conformational states of this mutant, evidence for which is provided by crystallographic analysis. Neither the H225Q enzyme nor the Y259F enzyme stabilizes the FADH(2)-iminium charge-transfer complex observed previously in stopped-flow studies with the wild-type enzyme. Our studies are consistent with a key role for Tyr-259, but not His-225, in deprotonation of the substrate amine group prior to FAD reduction. We infer that residue His-225 is likely to modulate the acid-base properties of Tyr-259 by perturbing the pK(a) of Tyr-259 and thus fine-tunes the reaction chemistry to facilitate proton abstraction under physiological conditions. Our data are discussed in the context of the crystallographic data for DMGO and also in relation to contemporary mechanisms for flavoprotein-catalyzed oxidation of amine substrates.

MeSH terms

  • Arthrobacter / enzymology*
  • Binding Sites
  • Catalysis
  • Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide / metabolism*
  • Histidine / metabolism*
  • Models, Chemical
  • Models, Molecular
  • Molecular Structure
  • Mutant Proteins / chemistry*
  • Mutant Proteins / genetics
  • Mutant Proteins / metabolism
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors / chemistry*
  • Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors / genetics
  • Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors / metabolism*
  • Tyrosine / metabolism*


  • Mutant Proteins
  • Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide
  • Tyrosine
  • Histidine
  • Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors
  • dimethylglycine oxidase