In the post-genomic era, genes and proteins are now studied on a more comprehensive scale. Studying disease processes at only the genetic or transcriptomic level will give an incomplete amount of information. A proteomic approach potentially allows for a more global overview of how disease processes affect the proteins present in cells, tissues and organisms. The challenge arises in determining which proteins are affected in specific diseases and establishing which of these changes are unique to a particular disease. Existing and emerging proteomic technologies allow for high throughput analysis of proteins in a variety of sample types. Prostate cancer is a significant male health problem in the Western world. It is widely accepted that more specific prognostic and diagnostic markers of prostate cancer are urgently required. The present paper suggests that urine may be an attractive biofluid in which to pursue the identification of novel biomarkers of prostate cancer. This review introduces some proteomic techniques including mass spectrometry and the newer, quantitative proteomic strategies. It focuses on the potential application of these platforms to novel urinary biomarker identification in prostate malignancy. It also includes a synopsis of the current literature on urinary proteomics.