The Ras family of small GTPases regulates cell proliferation, spreading, migration and apoptosis, and malignant transformation by binding to several protein effectors. One such GTPase, R-Ras, plays distinct roles in each of these processes, but to date, identified R-Ras effectors were shared with other Ras family members (e.g., H-Ras). We utilized a new database of Ras-interacting proteins to identify RLIP76 (RalBP1) as a novel R-Ras effector. RLIP76 binds directly to R-Ras in a GTP-dependent manner, but does not physically associate with the closely related paralogues H-Ras and Rap1A. RLIP76 is required for adhesion-induced Rac activation and the resulting cell spreading and migration, as well as for the ability of R-Ras to enhance these functions. RLIP76 regulates Rac activity through the adhesion-induced activation of Arf6 GTPase and activation of Arf6 bypasses the requirement for RLIP76 in Rac activation and cell spreading. Thus, we identify a novel R-Ras effector, RLIP76, which links R-Ras to adhesion-induced Rac activation through a GTPase cascade that mediates cell spreading and migration.