An 8-month-old PML/RARalpha knock-in female mouse developed a promyelocytic-like myeloid leukemia with an expected latency. At necropsy, besides the typical findings associated with myeloid leukemia, a severe unilateral hydronephrosis was observed. By histopathologic examination, 2 polypoid adenomas arising from the transitional epithelium of the renal pelvis and ureter were detected. The epithelial cells of the polypoid adenomas showed accumulation of hyaline eosinophilic material within the cytoplasm. Large amounts of extracellular eosinophilic crystals were also associated with the transitional cell adenomas. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the eosinophilic intracytoplasmic material and the extracellular eosinophilic crystals were composed of Ym proteins. A unilateral hyaline droplet tubular nephropathy was associated with the myeloid leukemia. Expression of Ym proteins characterized both the neoplastic myeloid infiltrates and the tubular hyaline droplets. In the present PML/RARalpha knock-in female mouse, the accumulation of Ym proteins associated with the myeloid leukemia and with the polypoid adenomas of the transitional epithelium underlies 2 distinct pathogenetic mechanisms.