Celiac disease is usually associated with autoimmune disorders and has occasionally been reported in patients with inflammatory myopathies. Our aim was to determine the presence of celiac disease and antibodies associated with celiac disease in patients with inflammatory myopathies and to investigate their relationship. Serum antigliadin, anti-tissue transglutaminase, and antiendomysial antibodies were determined in 51 patients with inflammatory myopathies. HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 alleles were studied to assess their complementary diagnostic value. Jejunal biopsy was performed in patients with moderate to high levels of antigliadin antibodies. Patients with jejunal histology consistent with celiac disease initiated a gluten-free diet. Seventeen patients (31%) were positive for antigliadin antibodies, which were significantly more frequent in patients with inclusion-body myositis than dermatomyositis (P < 0.001). Positive status to HLA-DQ2 and/or -DQ8 did not differ between antigliadin-positive (75% and 12.5%) or -negative (60% and 15%) patients. Three of five jejunal biopsies were diagnostic for celiac disease with histological normalization after a gluten-free diet. Thus, celiac disease is more prevalent in patients with inflammatory myopathies than in the general population. Positive status to HLA-DQ2 allele, which is known to be more frequent in patients with inflammatory myopathies, could explain the high prevalence of antigliadin antibodies in this population. The diagnostic value of HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8 haplotypes to detect celiac disease in patients with inflammatory myopathy is limited.