By the time of renal transplantation, end-stage renal disease patients have a huge burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and are heavily saturated with atherosclerotic risk factors. Worsening of preexisting risk factors or new CVD risk factors may develop in the posttransplant period consequent in part to the diabetogenic and atherogenic potential of immunosuppressive drugs. The annual risk of a fatal or non-fatal CVD event of 3.5 to 5% in kidney transplant recipients is 50-fold higher than the general population. Renal allograft dysfunction, proteinuria, anemia, moderate hyperhomocysteinemia and elevated serum C-reactive protein concentrations, each dependently confer greater risk of CVD morbidity and mortality in the posttransplant period. Long-term care of renal transplant recipients should programmatically incorporate the recommendations of the National Kidney Foundation Working Groups and European Best Practice Guidelines Expert Group on Renal Transplantations into the management of hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, and posttransplant diabetes mellitus. Timely utilization of coronary revascularization procedures should be undertaken as these treatments are equally effective in the kidney transplant population.