Treatment of early mixed cellular and humoral renal allograft rejection with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil

Kidney Int. 2007 Jan;71(1):24-30. doi: 10.1038/ Epub 2006 Sep 13.


This prospective study investigated the efficiency of the tacrolimus (Tac) combined with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) alone without immunoadsorption (IA) or plasmapheresis (PPH) as treatment for early (within 2 weeks) acute humoral rejection (AHR) in non-sensitized renal allograft recipients. Of 160 patients enrolled in this prospective study, 11 patients had histologically and clinically confirmed early steroid-resistant acute rejection with an antibody response and received Tac-MMF therapy. No other aggressive rescue methods such as IA, PPH were used, according to the study design. Patients (n=11) were followed for 13.8+/-3.5 months; nine were females. The complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch was negative before transplantation in all patients and only positive for panel-reactive antibody in one patient. Most of the rejection episodes were mixed with cellular rejection (four patients met Banff IIA criteria, five patients met Banff IIB, one patient met Banff IB, and one patient met Banff borderline). After 16.19+/-6.16 days of treatment, all rejection episodes were successfully reversed and all graft functions were stable, with a mean serum creatinine level of 1.12+/-0.32 mg/dl during follow-up. No patient suffered from severe infectious complications (except one case of urinary infection). Our investigation suggests that Tac combined with MMF alone is adequate to reverse early mixed cellular and humoral C4d-positive rejection in non-sensitized renal allograft recipients.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Adult
  • Female
  • Graft Rejection / drug therapy*
  • Graft Rejection / etiology
  • Graft Rejection / immunology
  • Graft Rejection / pathology
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Cellular
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Isoantibodies / biosynthesis
  • Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects*
  • Kidney Transplantation / immunology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mycophenolic Acid / administration & dosage
  • Mycophenolic Acid / analogs & derivatives*
  • Mycophenolic Acid / therapeutic use
  • Prospective Studies
  • Tacrolimus / administration & dosage
  • Tacrolimus / therapeutic use*


  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Isoantibodies
  • Mycophenolic Acid
  • Tacrolimus