Objective: We sought to elucidate the geometric determinants of ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) in patients with chronic anterior myocardial infarction (MI).
Materials and methods: In 16 patients with anterior MI only (Group A) and 18 patients with both anterior and inferoposterior MI (Group B), three parallel equidistant anteroposterior (AP) planes (medial, central, lateral) perpendicular to the mitral valvular commissure-commissure plane were generated. The systolic tenting area of the mitral valve (MVTa) and the angles between the annular plane and leaflets (anterior, Aalpha; posterior, Palpha) on the AP planes were measured. The left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes, and end-diastolic and end-systolic mitral annular area (MAAs) were obtained.
Result: The regurgitant orifice area (ROA) was significantly smaller in Group A than Group B (0.08 +/- 0.09 vs 0.20 +/- 0.18 cm(2), P < 0.05). In the total of 34 patients, the medial MVTa (P < 0.001), MAAs (P < 0.05) and the spherical index (P < 0.05) were three independent determinants of ROA while the left ventricular volumes were not. MAAs was the only independent determinant of ROA in Group A, while the medial MVTa was in Group B. Palpha (P < 0.05) and MVTa (P = 0.06) tended to be larger in the medial than the lateral side in Group B, while no differences were found in Group A.
Conclusion: The geometry of the mitral valve apparatus was more important than the left ventricular volumes in determining the severity of IMR in patients with anterior MI. The posteromedial side tenting could play a critical role in causing significant IMR when the inferoposterior MI coexists with anterior MI.