Variable antiretroviral therapy (ART) drug response likely reflects the combined influence of environment, underlying disease, concurrent drugs, and genetics. Gender exerts modest or negligible effects on ART disposition, and it is expected to have limited clinical implication, although it should be accounted for in large population studies. Ethnic denominations have, with the notable exception of efavirenz, no clear influence on ART disposition. Exploration of genetic factors might offer a better comprehension to the largely unpredictable and unresolved variability in ART concentrations and related toxicity or treatment outcome. Despite the negative perception of genetic research among the general public, this type of investigation is now widely accepted by concerned parties: patients, relatives, and study volunteers.