Genetic and Phylogenetic Analysis of Multi-Continent Human Influenza A(H1N2) Reassortant Viruses Isolated in 2001 Through 2003

Virus Res. 2006 Dec;122(1-2):200-5. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2006.07.010. Epub 2006 Sep 12.


Genetic analyses were performed on 228 influenza A(H1) viruses derived from clinical subjects participating in an experimental vaccine trial conducted in 20 countries on four continents between 2001 and 2003. HA1 phylogenetic analysis of these viruses showed multiple clades circulated around the world with regional prevalence patterns. Sixty-five of the A(H1) viruses were identified as A(H1N2), 40 of which were isolated from South Africa. The A(H1) sequences of these viruses cluster with published H1N2 viruses phylogenetically and share with them diagnostic signature V169A and A193T changes. The results also showed for the first time that H1N2 viruses were prominent in South Africa during the 2001-2002 influenza season, accounting for over 90% of the A(H1) cases in our study, and infecting both children (29/31) and the elderly (11/13). Phylogenetic analysis of the 65 H1N2 viruses we identified, in conjunction with the 56 recent H1N2 viruses currently available in the database, provided a comprehensive view of the circulation and evolution of distinct clades of H1N2 viruses in a temporal manner between early 2001 and mid-2003, shortly after the appearance of these recent reassortant viruses in or near year 2000.

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Amino Acid Substitution / genetics
  • Geography
  • Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Influenza A virus / classification
  • Influenza A virus / genetics*
  • Influenza A virus / isolation & purification
  • Influenza, Human / epidemiology
  • Influenza, Human / virology*
  • Molecular Epidemiology
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Phylogeny
  • Reassortant Viruses / classification
  • Reassortant Viruses / genetics*


  • Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus
  • hemagglutinin, human influenza A virus