This study investigated the relationship between intrahemispheric location of lesion and disturbances of emotional expression and comprehension. Twenty-eight right hemisphere strokes, 18 left hemisphere strokes, and 20 controls were examined on a standardized test of the expression, repetition, and comprehension of emotional prosody as well as the visual recognition of emotional situations and faces. The patients were classified into aprosodic syndromes according to the test scores. The lesions were independently traced, and overlapped for each aprosodic syndrome. The results, for lesions in either hemisphere, indicated involvement of the basal ganglia most frequently in aprosodic syndromes followed by anterior temporal lobe and insula lesions. Basal ganglia damage was also seen most frequently in patients with impaired comprehension of emotional facial expressions and situations. The anterior temporal lobe was also frequently involved in patients with such deficits. The basal ganglia emerged as a structure of particular importance in the mediation of emotional expression and comprehension.