Hematologic Manifestations of Celiac Disease

Blood. 2007 Jan 15;109(2):412-21. doi: 10.1182/blood-2006-07-031104. Epub 2006 Sep 14.

Abstract

Celiac disease is a common systemic disorder that can have multiple hematologic manifestations. Patients with celiac disease may present to hematologists for evaluation of various hematologic problems prior to receiving a diagnosis of celiac disease. Anemia secondary to malabsorption of iron, folic acid, and/or vitamin B12 is a common complication of celiac disease and many patients have anemia at the time of diagnosis. Celiac disease may also be associated with thrombocytosis, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, venous thromboembolism, hyposplenism, and IgA deficiency. Patients with celiac disease are at increased risk of being diagnosed with lymphoma, especially of the T-cell type. The risk is highest for enteropathy-type T-cell lymphoma (ETL) and B-cell lymphoma of the gut, but extraintestinal lymphomas can also be seen. ETL is an aggressive disease with poor prognosis, but strict adherence to a gluten-free diet may prevent its occurrence.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anemia / blood
  • Anemia / complications
  • Celiac Disease / blood*
  • Celiac Disease / complications*
  • Celiac Disease / diagnosis
  • Hematologic Diseases / blood*
  • Hematologic Diseases / complications*
  • Hematologic Diseases / diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Splenic Diseases / complications
  • Splenic Diseases / diagnosis