Campylobacter is a leading cause of food-borne illness in the United States. Recent evidence has demonstrated that bacteriocins produced by Bacillus circulans and Paenibacillus polymyxa reduce cecal Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens infected with Campylobacter jejuni. As Campylobacter coli is the most prevalent Campylobacter isolate recovered in turkeys, the objectives of the present study were to evaluate the efficacy of these bacteriocins against C. coli colonization and their influence on the gastrointestinal architecture of young turkeys. In 3 separate trials, a total of 135 day-of-hatch poults (n = 45/trial) were orally challenged on d 3 with approximately 10(6) cfu of a mixture of 3 C. coli isolates. Immediately before bacteriocin treatment (d 10), cecal Campylobacter concentrations averaged 1.1 x 10(7) cfu/ g of cecal contents (n = 15/trial). On d 10 to 12 posthatch, 2 bacteriocin treatment groups were given free access to feed supplemented with purified, microencapsulated bacteriocins, whereas the positive control treatment group had access to untreated feed (n = 10/treatment group per trial). At the end of the 3-d dosing period, ceca and duodenal loops were collected for analysis. In each of the 3 separate trials, treatment with bacteriocin eliminated detectable ceca Campylobacter concentrations (detection limit, 1 x 10(2) cfu/g of cecal contents) vs. controls (1.0 x 106 cfu of Campylobacter/g of cecal contents). Duodenum crypt depth and goblet cell numbers were also reduced in turkeys treated with either bacteriocin vs. controls (P < 0.05). The dynamic reduction in crypt depth and goblet cell density in turkeys dosed with bacteriocin may provide clues to how bacteriocins inhibit enteric Campylobacter.