PEX genes encode proteins, termed peroxins, that are required for the biogenesis and proliferation of microbodies (peroxisomes). We have screened the available protein and DNA databases to identify putative peroxin orthologs in 17 fungal species (yeast and filamentous fungi) and in humans. This analysis demonstrated that most peroxins are present in all fungi under study. Only Pex16p is absent in most yeast species, with the exception of Yarrowia lipolytica, but this peroxin is present in all filamentous fungi. Furthermore, we found that the Y. lipolytica PEX9 gene, a putative orphan gene, might encode a Pex26p ortholog. In addition, in the genomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida glabrata, several PEX genes appear to have been duplicated, exemplified by the presence of paralogs of the peroxins Pex5p and Pex21p, which were absent in other organisms. In all organisms, we observed multiple paralogs of the peroxins involved in organelle proliferation. These proteins belong to two groups of peroxins that we propose to designate the Pex11p and Pex23p families. This redundancy may complicate future studies on peroxisome biogenesis and proliferation in fungal species.