Double-blind test of the effects of distant intention on water crystal formation

Explore (NY). 2006 Sep-Oct;2(5):408-11. doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2006.06.004.


The hypothesis that water "treated" with intention can affect ice crystals formed from that water was pilot tested under double-blind conditions. A group of approximately 2,000 people in Tokyo focused positive intentions toward water samples located inside an electromagnetically shielded room in California. That group was unaware of similar water samples set aside in a different location as controls. Ice crystals formed from both sets of water samples were blindly identified and photographed by an analyst, and the resulting images were blindly assessed for aesthetic appeal by 100 independent judges. Results indicated that crystals from the treated water were given higher scores for aesthetic appeal than those from the control water (P = .001, one-tailed), lending support to the hypothesis.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • California
  • Consciousness*
  • Crystallization*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Humans
  • Hypnosis*
  • Ice*
  • Pilot Projects
  • Religion*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Research Design
  • Tokyo


  • Ice