Anthelmintic Resistance: The State of Play Revisited

Life Sci. 2006 Nov 25;79(26):2413-31. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2006.08.010. Epub 2006 Aug 17.


Helminthosis is one of the major constraints in the successful wool and mutton industry throughout the world. Anthelmintic Resistance (AR) is said to have been established when previously effective drug ceases to kill exposed parasitic population at the therapeutically recommended dosages. Anthelmintic resistance is almost cosmopolitan in distribution and it has been reported in almost all species of domestic animals and even in some parasites of human beings. Some of the most important species of parasites of small ruminants in which AR has been reported include: Haemonchus spp., Trichostrongylus spp. Teladorsagia spp., Cooperia spp. Nematodirus spp., and Oesophagostomum spp. All the major groups of anthelmintics have been reported for development of variable degrees of resistance in different species of gastrointestinal nematodes. This paper describes the global scenario of prevalence and methods used for detection of AR in small ruminants. Different mechanisms and contributory factors for the development of AR are discussed. Various options and alternate strategies for the control and/or delay in the onset of AR are suggested in the light of available information.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anthelmintics / pharmacology*
  • Asia / epidemiology
  • Australia / epidemiology
  • Drug Resistance*
  • Europe / epidemiology
  • Helminthiasis, Animal / drug therapy*
  • Helminthiasis, Animal / epidemiology
  • Helminthiasis, Animal / parasitology
  • Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic / drug therapy*
  • Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Ruminants / parasitology*


  • Anthelmintics