Purpose: To assess the reason for the relative high risk of local complications for women following cardiac catheterization by evaluating the associations between gender, sheath size, and local adverse outcomes following cardiac catheterization.
Methods: The data used in this study were obtained from a portion of the American College of Cardiology-National Cardiovascular Data Registry (ACC-NCDR), which included 13 878 patients who underwent cardiac catheterization at one of 59 participating cardiac catheterization institutions throughout the United States during late 2003. Rates of serious local vascular adverse events were calculated by gender following cardiac catheterization, by type of vascular hemostasis used, stratified by arterial sheath size.
Results: Serious local vascular events were reported in 3.54% of patients, most commonly hematoma (2.00%). The relative risk for women of any vascular complication was 1.40 [95%CI = 1.17, 1.67, p = 0.0002]. A statistically significant relative risk for woman was evident when collagen plug devices or manual compression alone were used as the first method for hemostasis. The rate of vascular complications increased progressively with increasing sheath size, more so in women than in men.
Conclusions: High relative risk for women of local vascular complications following cardiac catheterization was demonstrated with use of manual compression, as well as with collagen plug devices to control femoral artery bleeding. Large sheath size is associated with both a relatively high absolute risk and a high relative risk for women. Knowledge of this information should be considered by interventional cardiologists in making decisions on how to achieve hemostasis following cardiac catheterization.