Prostaglandin E2 induces fibroblast growth factor 9 via EP3-dependent protein kinase Cdelta and Elk-1 signaling

Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Nov;26(22):8281-92. doi: 10.1128/MCB.00941-06. Epub 2006 Sep 18.


Fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF-9) is a potent mitogen that controls the proper development of many tissues and organs. In contrast, aberrant expression of FGF-9 also results in the evolution of many human diseases, such as cancers and endometriosis. Despite its vital function being reported, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the regulation of FGF-9 expression are mostly unknown. We report here that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induces expression of FGF-9, which promotes endometriotic stromal cell proliferation, through the EP3 receptor-activated protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta) signaling pathway. Activation of PKCdelta leads to phosphorylation of ERK1/2, and the transcription factor Elk-1 thereby promotes transcription of FGF-9. Two Elk-1 cis-binding sites located at nucleotides -1324 to -1329 and -1046 to -1051 of the human FGF-9 promoter are identified as crucial for mediating PGE2 actions. Collectively, we demonstrate, for the first time, that PGE2 can directly induce FGF-9 expression via a novel signaling pathway involving EP3, PKCdelta, and a member of the ETS domain-containing transcription factor superfamily in primary human endometriotic stromal cells. Our findings may also provide a molecular framework for considering roles for PGE2 in FGF-9-related embryonic development and/or human diseases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cell Proliferation
  • Dinoprostone / pharmacology*
  • Endometrium / cytology
  • Endometrium / physiology
  • Female
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 9 / genetics
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 9 / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 / metabolism
  • Models, Biological
  • Protein Kinase C-delta / metabolism*
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Prostaglandin E / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Prostaglandin E / physiology
  • Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP3 Subtype
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Stromal Cells / physiology
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • ets-Domain Protein Elk-1 / metabolism*


  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 9
  • PTGER3 protein, human
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Receptors, Prostaglandin E
  • Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP3 Subtype
  • ets-Domain Protein Elk-1
  • Protein Kinase C-delta
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
  • Dinoprostone