Development of genetic systems for many bacterial genera, including Treponema, now allow the study of structures that are specific to certain pathogens. The cytoplasmic filament ribbon of treponemes that is involved in the cell division cycle has a unique organization. Cytoplasmic bridging proteins connect the filaments, maintaining the distance between them and providing the overall ribbon-like structure. The filaments are anchored by proteins associated with the inner membrane. Each filament is composed of a unique monomer, the cytoplasmic filament protein A (CfpA), with coiled-coils secondary structures. CfpA is part of a growing family of proteins that we propose to call bacterial intermediate-like filaments (BILF).