We describe 46 Cryptococcus gattii-infected persons identified by population-based surveillance conducted in South Africa. Most patients with C. gattii infection presented with meningitis. The mortality rate during hospitalization was 36%. We found no significant differences between persons with and persons without C. gattii infection with regard to clinical presentation, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosis, concomitant conditions, or prior opportunistic infections. C. gattii isolates had low MICs to the tested antifungal drugs.