Cell lines were established from two uterine cervical cancers, a glassy cell carcinoma (GCC) and a large cell nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (LCSC), and studied by a variety of techniques, including histology, chromosome analysis, heterotransplantation and tumor marker analyses. There were radical differences in the morphology, heterotransplantability, production of tumor markers, etc., between the cultures of these morphologically similar cancers. The LCSC line (HKMUS) consisted of polygonal and round cells containing tonofilaments; these cells discharged tumor antigen-4 (TA-4) into the conditioned media. HKMUS was heterotransplantable into the subcutis of nude mice to form LCSC. On the other hand, the GCC line (HOKUG) consisted of round or spindle-shaped cells. HOKUG was easily transplanted into the subcutis or intraabdominal cavity of nude mice and metastasized easily. It discharged TA-4, carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) into the conditioned media. The histologic picture of GCC revealed numerous blood vessels and a rapid proliferation of the cells. GCC, which is considered to be a mixed carcinoma having the characteristics of both squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, seems to be a cancer of unpredictable prognosis as compared to LCSC, possibly due to its rapid proliferation and easy metastasis, leading to peritonitis carcinomatosa.