The anti-obesity and erythropoietic effects of crude ethanolic extracts of Garcinia cambogia (bitter kola) seeds on Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were investigated. The rats were divided into three dosage groups: A (0 mg/kg of body weight), B (200 mg/kg) and C (400 mg/kg). Weight changes, plasma lipoprotein levels and the lipid profile of the liver, gastrointestinal system and adipose tissue were monitored as indices for anti-obesity, while the RBC (red blood cell) count (assessed by using a haemocytometer) was monitored as a measure of erythropoiesis. The extract was administered by gavage for 5 weeks. The results for each test group was compared statistically with those for the control (P<0.05). Analysis of the results showed a significant increase in RBC counts in both test groups and a decrease in weights of experimental animals. There was a dose-dependent decrease in the plasma level of very-low-density lipoprotein and a dose-dependent increase in the level of chylomicrons. There was a slight, but significant, decrease in the level of high-density lipoprotein and a significant increase in the level of LDL (low-density lipoprotein). There was significant dose-dependent decrease in the TAG (triacylglycerol) pool of adipose tissue and the liver of the test groups, but a significant increase in the TAG pool of the gastrointestinal system. The increase in the TAG pool of the gastrointestinal system is possibly compensatory. The results therefore confirm that ethanolic extracts of G. cambogia seeds have both haematologically enhancing and anti-obesity effects. The decrease in the high-density-lipoprotein level and an increase in the LDL level may play an important role in cardiovascular disease.