In the past 2 decades, Cryptococcus has emerged in its clinical significance and as a model yeast for understanding molecular pathogenesis. C neoformans and C gattii are currently considered major primary and secondary pathogens in a wide array of hosts that are known to be immunocompromised or apparently immunocompetent. A recent outbreak of C gattii infections further underscores the clinical importance of the yeast through its epidemiology and pathogenicity features. With an enlarging immunosuppressed population caused by HIV infection, solid organ transplantation, and clinical use of potent immunosuppressives, such as cancer chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies, and corticosteroids, this fungus has become a well-established infectious complication of modern medicine. This article examines current issues in cryptococcal infections, including new classification, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and specific clinical aspects.