NADPH oxidases have a distinct cellular localization in the kidney. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in the kidney by fibroblasts, endothelial cells (EC), vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), mesangial cells (MCs), tubular cells, and podocyte cells. All components of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase, as well as the Nox-1 and -4, are expressed in the kidney, with a prominent expression in renal vessels, glomeruli, and podocytes, and cells of the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle (TAL), macula densa, distal tubules, collecting ducts, and cortical interstitial fibroblasts. NADPH oxidase activity is upregulated by prolonged infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II) or a high salt diet. Since these are major factors underlying the development of hypertension, renal NADPH oxidase may have an important pathophysiological role. Indeed, recent studies with small interference RNAs (siRNAs) targeted to p22( phox ) implicate p22( phox ) in Ang II-induced activation of renal NADPH oxidase and the development of oxidative stress and hypertension, while studies with apocynin implicate activation of p47( phox ) in the development of nephropathy in a rat model of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). Experimental studies of the distribution, signaling, and function of NADPH oxidases in the kidney are described.