Introduction: We conducted a retrospective study on the clinical factors influencing the local and general prognosis of patients treated for uveal melanoma with a preliminary analysis of the prognostic value of monosomy 3.
Patients: and method: The patients sent to Curie Institute for uveal melanoma have a complete initial clinical evaluation, conservative management by radiotherapy or enucleation, and local and general long-term follow-up. Over the last 5 years, the status of chromosome 3 has been assessed by FISH in the tumors of enucleated patients. Findings concerning the initial workup, treatment, and follow-up are recorded prospectively. We conducted a retrospective study with multivariate analysis of the clinical factors influencing local recurrence, ocular conservation metastasis, and survival and studied the effect of monosomy 3.
Results: A total of 2241 patients were registered with a median follow-up of 72 months. Of these patients, 92.8% had conservative management with iodine 125 brachytherapy or proton beam therapy and 7.2% of the patients had enucleation (n=160). Tumors from 120 patients were studied for the status of chromosome 3 by FISH. The overall survival rate was 76.3% and the metastatic rate was 19.5%. The clinical factors influencing survival were the size and location of the tumor, age of the patient, gender, and initial treatment. The factors influencing the metastatic risk were the same plus retinal detachment and local recurrence. Monosomy 3 was a significant risk factor for metastatic disease.
Discussion: This study found the usual risk factors with the difference that location on the equator seems to be of worse prognosis than ciliary body involvement for survival and metastasis. In addition, the initial retinal detachment appears to be a risk factor for local recurrence and metastasis. At present, the evaluation of chromosome 3 is available for enucleated tumors but it could probably be done on needle biopsy performed during conservative management as well.
Conclusion: This study confirms previous results on the prognostic factors of uveal melanoma and on the value of monosomy 3. The increasingly precise identification of a group of high-risk patients should allow us to propose adjuvant therapy and to adapt follow-up.