Ribonucleases in HIV type 1 inhibition: effect of recombinant RNases on infection of primary T cells and immune activation-induced RNase gene and protein expression

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2006 Sep;22(9):897-907. doi: 10.1089/aid.2006.22.897.


Ribonucleases (RNases) have therapeutic potential against cancer and viral diseases and have been reported to inhibit replication of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in chronically infected cell lines. The ribonuclease eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) is responsible for the anti-HIV-1 activity of a soluble factor produced in response to human alloantigens (ASF). Four recombinant RNases (EDN; a four amino acid extension of the N-terminus EDN, -4EDN; RNase A; and angiogenin) were tested for inhibition of HIV-1 replication in PHA blasts. All RNases showed anti-HIV-1 activity, irrespective of whether the RNases were added before, during, or 2 h after infection. Polyclonal antibodies against the four RNases blocked the antiviral activity. ASF inhibited HIV-1 replication in vitro if added up to 4 h after infection. We demonstrated that allostimulation induced EDN, RNase A, and angiogenin mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), although only EDN protein was detected. We identified monocytes and dendritic cells, but not macrophages or T cells, as EDN-producing cells. These findings raise the possibilities that multiple naturally occurring RNases may contribute to protection against HIV-1 infection and could be considered for utilization in HIV-1 therapy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacology*
  • Cell Culture Techniques / methods
  • Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin / pharmacology
  • Gene Expression / drug effects
  • HIV Infections / metabolism
  • HIV-1 / drug effects*
  • HIV-1 / physiology
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Factors / pharmacology*
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Macrophages / virology
  • Microscopy, Confocal
  • Recombinant Proteins / pharmacology
  • Ribonuclease, Pancreatic / pharmacology
  • Ribonucleases / pharmacology*
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • T-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • T-Lymphocytes / virology
  • Virus Replication / drug effects*


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Immunologic Factors
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin
  • Ribonucleases
  • angiogenin
  • Ribonuclease, Pancreatic