The WFS1 gene, encoding an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane glycoprotein, is mutated in Wolfram syndrome characterized by diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy. Herein, Ca(2+) dynamics were examined in WFS1-knockdown and -overexpressing HEK293 cells. Studies using ER-targeted Ca(2+)-sensitive photoprotein aequorin demonstrated WFS1 protein to positively modulate ER Ca(2+) levels by increasing the rate of Ca(2+) uptake. Furthermore, Ca(2+) imaging with Fura-2 showed the magnitude of the store-operated Ca(2+) entry to parallel WFS1 expression levels. These data indicate that WFS1 protein participates in the regulation of cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, at least partly, by modulating the filling state of the ER Ca(2+) store.