Autophagy delays apoptotic death in breast cancer cells following DNA damage

Cell Death Differ. 2007 Mar;14(3):500-10. doi: 10.1038/sj.cdd.4402039. Epub 2006 Sep 22.


Early signaling in camptothecin-treated MCF-7 cells followed an intrinsic pathway, but death was delayed and late events exhibited few hallmarks of apoptosis. BH3-only proteins, such as Noxa, Puma and BimEL, were activated and localized to mitochondrial sites within 24 h following drug exposure. However, caspase activity was low and death was unaffected by caspase inhibition. Transmission electron micrographs showed the presence of large vacuoles in drug-treated cells. An autophagic survival response has been attributed to MCF-7 cells following nutrient starvation or exposure to tamoxifen. Here, we show that autophagy also plays an important role in the delayed DNA damage response. Confocal microscopy revealed colocalization of mitochondria with large autophagic vacuoles and inhibitors of autophagy increased mitochondrial depolarization and caspase-9 activity, and accelerated cell death. Furthermore, downregulation of autophagy proteins, Beclin 1 and Atg7, unmasked a caspase-dependent, apoptotic response to DNA damage. We propose that a post-mitochondrial caspase cascade is delayed as a result of early disposal of damaged mitochondria within autophagosomes. Our data also suggest that the use of autophagy as a means of delaying apoptosis or prolonging survival may be characteristic of noninvasive breast tumor cells. These studies underscore a potential role for autophagy inhibitors in combination with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs in early breast cancer therapy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Apoptosis*
  • Autophagy*
  • Breast Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Breast Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • Camptothecin / pharmacology
  • Caspases / metabolism
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • DNA Damage*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic*
  • Humans
  • Peptide Fragments / genetics
  • Peptide Fragments / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • Up-Regulation


  • Bax protein (53-86)
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • Caspases
  • Camptothecin