PR3-ANCA-positive crescentic necrotizing glomerulonephritis accompanied by isolated pulmonic valve infective endocarditis, with reference to previous reports of renal pathology

Clin Nephrol. 2006 Sep;66(3):202-9. doi: 10.5414/cnp66202.

Abstract

Patients with infective endocarditis (IE) often have renal complications which may include infarcts, abscesses and glomerulonephritis (GN). Furthermore, it is generally accepted that there is an association between IE and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA). Here, we report the case of a 24-year-old man who developed rapidly progressive GN in the course of IE due to infection with alpha-streptococcus. The initial clinical manifestation of the condition was severe sacroiliitis without fever. Sandwich ELISA showed that the patient was positive for PR3-ANCA at low titer, and the classical complement pathway was also activated. Renal biopsy demonstrated several lesions: focal embolic GN, GN with immune deposits and focal and segmental crescentic necrotizing GN. Treatment with antibiotics and steroids led to eradication of the infection, and resolution of the renal disease was accompanied by immediate disappearance of PR3-ANCA and hypocomplementemia. During a 4-year follow-up period, no recurrence was observed. There have only been 7 case reports of GN associated with IE and PR3-ANCA in which the renal pathology has been described, and the current report is the first to document renal pathology in a patient with isolated pulmonic valve IE and PR3-ANCA. Moreover, this report is the first to show a change in renal biopsy findings in response to treatment. A review of the 7 literature cases and that of our patient showed that none involved pauci-immune GN. Hence, further studies are needed to clarify the prevalence of pauci-immune GN in ANCA-positive IE patients.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic / metabolism*
  • Biopsy
  • Disease Progression
  • Echocardiography, Transesophageal
  • Endocarditis, Bacterial / complications*
  • Endocarditis, Bacterial / diagnostic imaging
  • Glomerulonephritis / complications*
  • Humans
  • Kidney / pathology*
  • Kidney / ultrastructure
  • Male
  • Meta-Analysis as Topic
  • Myeloblastin / metabolism*
  • Pulmonary Valve / microbiology*

Substances

  • Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic
  • Myeloblastin