Thy-1 is a 25-37 kDa glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein involved in T cell activation, neurite outgrowth, apoptosis, tumor suppression, wound healing, and fibrosis. To mediate these diverse effects, Thy-1 participates in multiple signaling cascades. In this review, we discuss Thy-1 signaling primarily in non-immunologic cell types, including neurons, mesangial cells, ovarian cancer cells, nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. We review the current literature regarding Thy-1 signaling via integrins, protein tyrosine kinases, and cytokines and growth factors; and the roles of these signaling pathways in cellular adhesion, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and cell adhesion and migration. We also discuss the role of Thy-1 localization to lipid rafts, and of the GPI anchor in Thy-1 signaling. Ongoing research on the mechanisms of Thy-1 signaling will add to our understanding of the diverse physiologic and pathologic processes in which Thy-1 plays a role.