Management and outcomes of coronary artery perforation during percutaneous coronary intervention

Am J Cardiol. 2006 Oct 1;98(7):911-4. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.04.032. Epub 2006 Aug 7.


Coronary perforation is a particularly feared complication of percutaneous coronary intervention. The optimal management and predictors of adverse outcomes for these patients remain to be defined. Advances in management such as the use of polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stents have not been critically examined in terms of efficacy. We analyzed a cohort of patients who sustained coronary perforation during percutaneous coronary intervention at our institution during a 9-year period to examine the trends in incidence, management, and outcomes. The patient medical records were reviewed, and detailed angiographic analysis was undertaken to identify the predictors of adverse outcomes, including the development of tamponade, the requirement for emergency coronary artery bypass grafting, and in-hospital death. One year of follow-up was attempted for all patients. Seventy-two cases of coronary perforation were identified, with an overall incidence of 0.19%. The perforation grade and presence of chronic renal insufficiency were the only predictors of mortality on multivariate regression analysis. The use of polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stents to manage perforations was not associated with any reduction in adverse outcomes, such as the development of tamponade, the need for emergency coronary artery bypass grafting, or in-hospital death. In conclusion, coronary perforation remains a feared complication in the contemporary interventional era with significant in-hospital mortality. Emphasis should be placed on preventing this complication whenever possible, including exercising particular caution in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. The treatment of such patients should be tailored to the severity of the perforation. The optimal treatment of these patients needs to be defined, and the efficacy of covered stents needs to be studied prospectively.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Angioplasty, Balloon / adverse effects*
  • Angioplasty, Balloon / instrumentation
  • Cardiac Tamponade / etiology*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Coronary Artery Bypass*
  • Coronary Vessels / injuries*
  • Coronary Vessels / surgery
  • District of Columbia / epidemiology
  • Emergencies
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Heart Injuries / classification
  • Heart Injuries / mortality*
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Prosthesis Implantation / adverse effects
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / mortality
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Stents