Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit prostaglandin (PG) synthesis enzymes, the cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and 2). It is suggested that these enzymes are not their only targets. We reported that in tumoral TT cell, indomethacin, in vivo and in vitro, decreases proliferation and increases activity of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin-dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), the PG catabolism key enzyme. Here, we show that the COX-1 inhibitors, selective or not, and sulindac sulfone, a non-COX inhibitor, increased 15-PGDH activity and reduced PGE2 levels. This increase was negatively correlated to the decrease in cell proliferation and suggested that 15-PGDH could be implicated in NSAIDs anti-proliferative effect. Indeed, the silencing of 15-PGDH expression by RNA interference using 15-PGDH specific siRNA enhanced TT cell proliferation and abolished the anti-proliferative effect of a representative non-selective inhibitor, ibuprofen. Moreover, a specific inhibitor of 15-PGDH activity, CAY 10397, completely reversed the effect of ibuprofen on proliferation. Consequently our results demonstrate that, at least in TT cells, 15-PGDH is implicated in proliferation and could be a target for COX-1 inhibitors specific or not. NSAIDs defined by their COX inhibition should also be defined by their effect on 15-PGDH.