There has been much effort recently to define the role of adipocytokines, which are soluble mediators derived mainly from adipocytes (fat cells), in the interaction between adipose tissue, inflammation and immunity. The adipocytokines adiponectin and leptin have emerged as the most abundant adipocyte products, thereby redefining adipose tissue as a key component not only of the endocrine system, but also of the immune system. Indeed, as we discuss here, several adipocytokines have a central role in the regulation of insulin resistance, as well as many aspects of inflammation and immunity. Other adipocytokines, such as visfatin, have only recently been identified. Understanding this rapidly growing family of mainly adipocyte-derived mediators might be of importance in the development of new therapies for obesity-associated diseases.