Thus far, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been used to convert carbon-based substrates to electricity. However, sulfur compounds are ubiquitously present in organic waste and wastewater. In this study, a MFC with a hexacyanoferrate cathodic electrolyte was used to convert dissolved sulfide to elemental sulfur. Two types of MFCs were used, a square type closed to the air and a tubular type in which the cathode compartment was open to the air. The square-type MFCs demonstrated a potential-dependent conversion of sulfide to sulfur. In the tubular system, up to 514 mg sulfide L(-1) net anodic compartment (NAC) day(-1) (241 mg L(-1) day(-1) total anodic compartment, TAC) was removed. The sulfide oxidation in the anodic compartment resulted in electricity generation with power outputs up to 101 mW L(-1) NAC (47 W m(-3) TAC). Microbial fuel cells were coupled to an anaerobic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor, providing total removals of up to 98% and 46% of the sulfide and acetate, respectively. The MFCs were capable of simultaneously removing sulfate via sulfide. This demonstrates that digester effluents can be polished by a MFC for both residual carbon and sulfur compounds. The recovery of electrons from sulfides implies a recovery of energy otherwise lost in the methane digester.