APOBEC-1 and AID are nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking proteins but APOBEC3G cannot traffic

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Nov 10;350(1):214-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.09.032. Epub 2006 Sep 18.


Human APOBEC3G (hA3G) is a member of the APOBEC-1 related protein (ARP) family of cytidine deaminases. hA3G functions as a natural defense against endogenous retrotransposons and a multitude of retroviruses, most notably human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Nothing is known about the cellular function of hA3G, however, upon HIV-1 infection hA3G functions as an antiviral factor by mutating viral single-stranded DNA during reverse transcription. Whereas homologous deaminases such as APOBEC-1 and AID act on RNA and DNA, respectively, in the cell nucleus, hA3G mutagenic activity appears to be restricted to the cytoplasm. We demonstrate that hA3G is not a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein like APOBEC-1 and AID, but is strongly retained in the cytoplasm through a mechanism that involves both the N and C-terminal regions of the protein.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • APOBEC-1 Deaminase
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism*
  • Cytidine Deaminase / chemistry
  • Cytidine Deaminase / genetics
  • Cytidine Deaminase / metabolism*
  • Cytoplasm / metabolism*
  • HeLa Cells
  • Humans
  • Leucine / genetics
  • Leucine / metabolism
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Protein Transport
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid


  • AICDA (activation-induced cytidine deaminase)
  • APOBEC-1 Deaminase
  • APOBEC1 protein, human
  • Cytidine Deaminase
  • Leucine