1. Some effects of sodium salicylate upon anaerobic glycolysis have been studied in normal human erythrocytes incubated for up to 6 h at 37 degrees C in autologous sera. 2. Both glucose consumption and lactate production were stimulated by concentrations of salicylate up to 60 mmol/l but at the highest concentration used (90 mmol/l) an initial stimulus was followed by inhibition of glycolysis. 3. Losses occurred of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine 5'-phosphate(AMP)at higher concentrations of salicylate and there was a concomitant increase of inorganic phosphate. 4. Other phosphate esters underwent concentration changes at higher concentrations of salicylate that reflected inadequate concentrations of ATP for glycolysis. 5. The rates of sodium efflux from, and potassium influx into, erythrocytes were unaffected by the presence of salicylate at concentrations sufficient to stimulate glycolysis.