Several mutations in the CFH gene have been described in non-Shiga-toxin-associated haemolytic uraemic syndrome (non-Stx-HUS), a rare syndrome characterized by haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure. Mutations in genes encoding other complement regulatory proteins, membrane cofactor protein (CD46) and complement factor I (CFI), were also involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Anyway, mutations in the three genes account for no more than 50% of cases of non-Stx-HUS. Human complement factor H related 5 (CFHR5) is a recently characterised member of the human complement factor H (CFH) family that has been found as a component of immune deposits in human kidney with sclerotic lesions from different causes. CFHR5 possesses cofactor activity and has been proposed to play a role in complement regulation in the glomerulus. We screened CFHR5 gene for variations potentially involved in the aetiology of HUS. Forty-five patients with HUS and 80 controls were analysed. Altogether, 5 genetic variants in CFHR5 were found in overall 9/45 HUS patients and in 4/80 controls. Statistical analysis showed that allelic variants in CFHR5 were prefentially associated with HUS. Based on these data, we conclude that, though not causative, CFHR5 genetic alterations may play a secondary role in the pathogenesis of HUS.