The food propensity questionnaire: concept, development, and validation for use as a covariate in a model to estimate usual food intake

J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Oct;106(10):1556-63. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2006.07.002.


Objective: Twenty-four-hour recalls capture rich information on food consumption, but suffer from inadequately measuring usual intakes of episodically consumed foods. We explore using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data as covariates in a statistical model to estimate individual usual intakes of episodically consumed foods and their distributions and describe the development of the Food Propensity Questionnaire, an FFQ introduced in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Design: We analyzed data from 965 adult participants in the Eating at America's Table Study who completed four 24-hour recalls and an FFQ. We assessed whether or not increasing FFQ-reported frequency was associated with both number of 24-hour recall consumption days and amounts reported.

Results: For 52 of 56 food groups (93%), and 218 of 230 individual foods (95%), there were significant monotonically increasing relationships between FFQ frequency and 24-hour recall probability of consumption. For 47 of 56 food groups (84%) and 55 of 230 (24%) individual foods, there were significant positive correlations between FFQ frequencies and consumption-day mean intake.

Conclusions: We found strong and consistent relationships between reported FFQ frequency of food and food-group consumption and probability of consumption on 24-hour recalls. This supports the premise that frequency data may offer important covariate information in supplementing multiple recalls for estimating usual intake of food groups.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diet* / statistics & numerical data
  • Dietetics / methods
  • Energy Intake / physiology*
  • Female
  • Fruit
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mental Recall
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Statistical
  • Nutrition Surveys*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Seasons
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Surveys and Questionnaires / standards*
  • United States
  • Vegetables