The efficiency of conventional chemotherapy regimens was comparatively studied in 75 patients with recurrent pulmonary tuberculosis. In the patients with recurrent pulmonary tuberculosis, conventional chemotherapy regimen "2b" including isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, fluoroquinolone (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin), and canamycin (amikacin) versus conventional chemotherapy regimen "2a" including isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and streptomycin could cease bacterial isolation after 3-month therapy, as evidenced by sputum microscopy (86.1 and 62.5%, respectively; p < 0.05). Cavity closure was more frequently observed after 6-month chemotherapy using regimen "2b" (76.7 and 48.0%, respectively; p < 0.05). In patients with recurrent pulmonary tuberculosis who isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) resistant to isoniazid and other antituberculous drugs (exclusive of rifampicin), 3-month use of conventional regimen "2b" led to cessation of bacterial isolation (as evidenced by the inoculation test) in 66.7% of cases; but this did not occur with conventional regimen "2a" in any case. Similarly, 3-month use of regimens "2b" and "2a" in patients isolating MBT resistant to rifampicin and other agents (exclusive of isoniazid) resulted in the cessation of bacterial isolation in 80 and 0% of cases, respectively. In multidrug resistance, these parameters were 11.1 and 0%, respectively.