Background: Hemostatic factors and endothelial markers may play some role in racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates. However, little information exists on hemostatic factors and endothelial markers across racial/ethnic groups.
Objectives: To describe, in four American racial/ethnic groups (Caucasian, Black, Hispanic, and Chinese), mean levels of selected hemostatic factors and endothelial markers.
Patients and methods: Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis baseline data were used (participant age: 45-84 years). Sex-specific analysis of covariance models, and t-tests for pairwise comparisons, were used to compare means of factors and markers. Adjustments were made for demographics and traditional CVD risk factors. Differences were significant at P < 0.05.
Results: Blacks had the highest levels of factor VIII, D-Dimer, plasmin-antiplasmin (PAP), and von Willebrand factor, among the highest levels of fibrinogen and E-selectin (women only), but among the lowest levels of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and, in men, the lowest levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Whites and Hispanics tended to have intermediate levels of factors and markers, although they had the highest levels of ICAM-1, and Hispanics had the highest mean levels of fibrinogen and E-selectin (women only). Chinese participants had among the highest levels of PAI-1, but the lowest, or among the lowest, of all other factors and markers. No soluble thrombomodulin differences were observed.
Conclusions: In this large cohort, hemostatic factor and endothelial marker mean levels varied by race/ethnicity, even after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors.