Sequence-based typing of the complete coding sequence of DQA1 and phenotype frequencies in the Dutch Caucasian population

Hum Immunol. 2006 Sep;67(9):756-63. doi: 10.1016/j.humimm.2006.01.002. Epub 2006 Jun 23.


Typing of DQA1 by sequencing has been a challenge because of a 3-nucleotide deletion in exon 2 in half of the alleles. Furthermore, 19 of the 28 alleles cannot be identified on basis of exon 2 alone, but need additional exon information. With the sequencing strategy presented here the complete exons 1-4 are sequenced heterozygously, enabling identification of all DQA1 alleles by sequence-based typing (SBT). Exons 1-4 were amplified and sequenced separately, the combined sequences were used for automated allele assignment. The method was validated by typing 21 individuals with all possible different allele group combinations. In addition 26 quality control samples were correctly typed by this method. To determine the phenotype frequencies 155 unrelated Dutch Caucasian individuals were DQA1 typed. In total 15 known and two new DQA1 alleles were identified. DQA1*0103 and *0505 were the most frequent alleles with phenotype frequencies of 30% and 29%, respectively. The SBT method presented here is an improvement compared to already existing protocols in that the complete exon sequence is obtained for all coding exons, using identical polymerase chain reaction conditions. Furthermore, all exons are sequenced heterozygously, facilitating allele assignment and reducing the number of amplification reactions.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Base Sequence
  • DNA Primers
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • HLA-DQ Antigens / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Netherlands / epidemiology
  • Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques*
  • Phenotype*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Reproducibility of Results


  • DNA Primers
  • HLA-DQ Antigens