Bovine and porcine transscleral solute transport: influence of lipophilicity and the Choroid-Bruch's layer

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Oct;47(10):4513-22. doi: 10.1167/iovs.06-0404.


Purpose: To determine the influence of the choroid-Bruch's layer and solute lipophilicity on in vitro transscleral drug permeability in bovine and porcine eyes.

Methods: The in vitro permeability of two VEGF inhibitory drugs, budesonide and celecoxib, which are lipophilic and neutral at physiologic pH, and of three marker solutes, 3H-mannitol (hydrophilic, neutral), sodium fluorescein (hydrophilic, anionic), and rhodamine 6G (lipophilic, cationic), were determined across freshly excised scleras, with or without the underlying choroid-Bruch's layer. Select studies were performed using porcine sclera with and without choroid-Bruch's layer. Neural retina was removed by exposure of the eyecup to isotonic buffer and wherever required, the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) layer of the preparation was disrupted and removed by exposure to hypertonic buffer. Because of the poor solubility of celecoxib and budesonide, permeability studies were conducted with 5% wt/vol of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD). For other solutes, permeability studies were conducted, with and without HPbetaCD. Partitioning of the solutes into bovine sclera and choroid-Bruch's layer was also determined.

Results: The calculated log (distribution coefficient) values were -2.89, -0.68, 2.18, 3.12, and 4.02 for mannitol, sodium fluorescein, budesonide, celecoxib, and rhodamine 6G, respectively. Removal of RPE was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and differences in the transport of mannitol. The order of the permeability coefficients (Papp) across sclera and sclera-choroid-Bruch's layers in bovine and porcine models was 3H-mannitol > fluorescein > budesonide > celecoxib > rhodamine 6G, with HPbetaCD, and 3H-mannitol > fluorescein > rhodamine 6G, without HPbetaCD. The presence of choroid-Bruch's layer reduced the bovine scleral permeability by 2-, 8-, 16-, 36-, and 50-fold and porcine tissue permeability by 2-, 7-, 15-, 33-, and 40-fold, respectively, for mannitol, sodium fluorescein, budesonide, celecoxib, and rhodamine 6G. The partition coefficients measured in bovine tissues correlated positively with the log (distribution coefficient) and exhibited a trend opposite that of transport. The partition coefficient ratio of bovine choroid-Bruch's layer to sclera was approximately 1, 1.5, 1.7, 2, and 3.5, respectively, for the solutes, as listed earlier.

Conclusions: The choroid-Bruch's layer is a more significant barrier to drug transport than is sclera. It hinders the transport of lipophilic solutes, especially a cationic solute, more than hydrophilic solutes and in a more dramatic way than does sclera. The reduction in transport across this layer directly correlates with solute binding to the tissue. Understanding the permeability properties of sclera and underlying layers would be beneficial in designing better drugs for transscleral delivery.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / metabolism*
  • Biological Transport
  • Bruch Membrane / metabolism*
  • Bruch Membrane / ultrastructure
  • Budesonide / metabolism
  • Cattle
  • Celecoxib
  • Choroid / metabolism*
  • Choroid / ultrastructure
  • Diffusion Chambers, Culture
  • Fluorescein / metabolism*
  • Mannitol / metabolism*
  • Permeability
  • Pyrazoles / metabolism
  • Rhodamines / metabolism*
  • Sclera / metabolism*
  • Sulfonamides / metabolism
  • Swine
  • Water / metabolism


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Pyrazoles
  • Rhodamines
  • Sulfonamides
  • rhodamine 6G
  • Water
  • Mannitol
  • Budesonide
  • Celecoxib
  • Fluorescein