Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder characterized by hamartomatous lesions in multiple organs, frequently involving the kidney. We conducted a retrospective review of the clinical and radiographic records of 167 patients with tuberous sclerosis to determine the frequency of renal disease, the likelihood of significant renal morbidity, and the effects of genotype (TSC1 vs TSC2) and gender on renal phenotype. Renal lesions were seen in 57.5% of patients. Of these, angiomyolipoma (AML) occurred in 85.4%, cysts in 44.8%, and renal cell carcinoma in 4.2%. Both AML and cysts were significantly more common and more numerous in TSC2 than in TSC1. AML was significantly more common in female than in male patients, but cysts showed no correlation with gender. Eleven patients developed renal abnormalities during their care in this practice at an average age of onset of 11.3 years (range 3.8-23 years). The frequency and number of renal lesions were positively correlated with age. Interventions, including arterial embolization and nephrectomy, were performed in 11 (6.6%) patients. Among female patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis, renal AML was universally present. Our findings confirm a high rate of renal involvement; a low rate of serious complications; significant associations between renal involvement, genotype, and gender; and a significant association between renal and pulmonary involvement in female patients.