The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether abdominal compression with an inflatable abdominal band, a device we developed, improved post-dialytic orthostatic hypotension (OH) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Twenty-five chronic HD patients with intractable post-dialytic OH were recruited. Post-HD changes in systolic blood pressure (DeltaSBP) in the supine and standing positions were compared in the patients, measured with or without the use of the band. The study showed DeltaSBP after HD without the band was significantly greater than that measured before HD (-36.1+/-18.2 vs -13.1+/-16.8 mm Hg; P<0.0001). DeltaSBP after HD with the band was reduced significantly in comparison to DeltaSBP after HD without the band (-19.4+/-21.2 vs -36.1+/-18.2 mm Hg; P<0.002). Use of the band did not cause an elevation in SBP in the supine position (149.0+/-29.6 vs 155.4+/-25.7 mm Hg); however, it did increase SBP upon standing (129.6+/-27.3 vs 117.2+/-22.6 mm Hg; P<0.05). Eight patients in whom an increase in SBP of 25 mm Hg or more was achieved with the band were classified as responders. Ejection fraction was significantly higher (76.4+/-11.1 vs 61.9+/-13.6%; P<0.02) and atrial natriuretic peptide concentration significantly lower (27.9+/-22.0 vs 68.9+/-47.5 pg/ml; P<0.02) in responders than in non-responders. We conclude that the abdominal band was effective for overcoming post-dialytic OH, without elevating supine SBP in some patients.