Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is an autosomal-dominant cancer predisposition syndrome of which the majority is caused by TP53 germline mutations and is characterised by different tumour types occurring at relatively young age. Recently, it was shown that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MDM2 gene, SNP309 (T>G variation), was associated with accelerated tumour formation in LFS patients who carry a TP53 germline mutation. To confirm this finding in different populations, we screened 25 Dutch and 11 Finnish TP53 mutation carriers for the presence of the SNP309 G allele in the MDM2 gene. Additionally, we investigated whether the SNP309 G allele plays a role in 72 Dutch TP53-negative LFS and LFS-related patients. In the TP53 germline mutation carriers, a significant difference was seen in the mean age of tumour onset for the SNP309 G allele group, that is, 29.7 years as compared to the SNP309 homozygous T group 45.5 years (P=0.005). In patients of LFS and LFS-related TP53-negative families, no difference was seen in the mean age of tumour onset. However, this TP53-negative group did show a significantly higher percentage of SNP309 homozygotes (G/G) compared to the general population (P=0.02). In conclusion, TP53 germline mutation carriers who have an SNP309 G allele have an earlier onset of tumour formation. The higher prevalence of MDM2 SNP309 homozygous G/G carriers in the TP53-negative group suggests that this allele contributes to cancer susceptibility in LFS and LFS-related families.