Divergences in protein activity and cellular localization within the Campoletis sonorensis Ichnovirus Vankyrin family

J Virol. 2006 Dec;80(24):12219-28. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01187-06. Epub 2006 Sep 27.


Ichnoviruses (IVs) occur in obligate symbiotic associations with endoparasitic ichneumonid wasps. IVs are injected with eggs during parasitization, where viral infection and gene expression alter host physiology to ensure endoparasitoid survival. The seven Campoletis sonorensis IV (CsIV) vankyrin genes encode proteins that possess ankyrin repeat domains resembling the inhibitory domains of NF-kappaB transcription factor inhibitors (IkappaBs). The CsIV vankyrins are divided into two subclasses: those expressed primarily in the host fat body (three genes) and those expressed in host hemocytes (four genes). CsIV vankyrin proteins showed limited antigenic similarity when analyzed by Western blotting. Cellular localization and expression patterns of recombinant vankyrin proteins in High Five and Sf9 insect cells differed within and between the subclasses and in cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide, laminarin, or viral immune challenge. In unstimulated Sf9 cells, five vankyrins were detected in cell nuclei. The remaining two proteins localized predominantly to cytoplasmic granules. Immune stimulation of cells resulted in a nuclear-to-cytoplasmic shift of three vankyrins but did not affect localization of other variants. When expressed from recombinant Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedroviruses (AcMNPVs), all vankyrins showed a nuclear localization during early stages of infection with patterns resembling those of immune-challenged cells as the infection progressed. Two fat body vankyrins also produced unique biological effects when expressed from recombinant AcMNPV. Insect cells infected with these viruses exhibited enhanced longevity compared to those infected with viruses expressing other vankyrins. Together, these data suggest that vankyrin proteins in CsIV have divergent physiological functions.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blotting, Western
  • Cell Count
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism*
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Cross Reactions
  • DNA Primers
  • Fat Body / metabolism*
  • Nucleopolyhedroviruses / metabolism
  • Phylogeny
  • Polydnaviridae / genetics*
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Symbiosis*
  • Viral Proteins / genetics
  • Viral Proteins / metabolism*
  • Wasps / virology*


  • DNA Primers
  • Viral Proteins