Background: The presence of metabolic syndrome has been shown to be predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. In a cross-sectional clinical study, we investigated the association of metabolic syndrome with asymptomatic lacunar strokes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and we compared its significance with urinary protein markers.
Methods: We studied Japanese type 2 diabetes patients (n=233, men=124, women=109). The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made according to WHO and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Cardiovascular events were recorded and asymptomatic lacunar lesions were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We also measured urinary levels of albumin, type IV collagen, beta2-microglobulin (beta2MG), N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) and lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS).
Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is 31.3% (IDF) and 52% (WHO) in 233 patients and microalbuminuria was present in 62 subjects (26.6%). Metabolic syndrome (WHO) significantly associated with asymptomatic lacunar lesions (p=0.035, OR=2.854, CI 1.075-7.579), while metabolic syndrome (IDF) or urinary markers failed to associate with presence of asymptomatic lacunar lesions. The presence of metabolic syndrome or microalbuminuria did not show significant association with CVD; however, the elevation of beta2MG, NAG and PGDS showed significant association with CVD. By a logistic regression analysis using urinary proteins as independent variables, the presence of higher PGDS excretion independently associated with history of CVD (p=0.025, OR=3.847, CI 1.180-12.545).
Conclusions: In type 2 diabetes patients, the elevation of urinary PGDS secretion closely associated with cardiovascular events and may be a supplemental or additional marker to the criteria of metabolic syndrome.