Mucronate (Mc) was identified as a dominant maize (Zea mays L.) opaque kernel mutation that alters zein storage protein synthesis. Zein protein bodies in Mc endosperm are misshapen and are associated with increased levels of ER Lumenal Binding Protein (BiP). Using GeneCalling to profile endosperm RNA transcripts, we identified an aberrant RNA in Mc that encodes the 16-kDa gamma-zein protein. The transcript contains a 38-bp deletion (nucleotides 406-444 after the initiation codon) that creates a frame-shift mutation and an abnormal sequence for the last 63 amino acids. Genetic mapping revealed the Mc mutation is linked with the locus encoding the 16-kDa gamma-zein, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis confirmed the 16-kDa gamma-zein protein is altered in Mc. The mutant protein exhibited changes in solubility properties and co-immunoprecipitated with the molecular chaperone, BiP. Transgenic maize plants expressing the Mc 16-kDa gamma-zein manifested an opaque kernel phenotype with enhanced levels of BiP in the endosperm, similar to the Mc mutant. Unlike the wild-type protein, the Mc 16-kDa gamma-zein interacted only weakly with the 22-kDa alpha-zein when expressed in the yeast two-hybrid system. These results indicate that the Mc phenotype results from a frame-shift mutation in the gene encoding the 16-kDa gamma-zein protein, leading to the unfolded protein response in developing endosperm.