Role of transforming growth factor-beta in the progression of heart failure

Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006 Nov;63(22):2584-96. doi: 10.1007/s00018-006-6085-8.


Transforming growth factor (TGF-beta) is a multifunctional peptide growth factor that has an important role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and repair in a variety of tissues. In mammals, the cytokine has three isoforms, TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, and TGF-beta3. TGF- beta1 is up-regulated by Ang II and induction of TGF-beta1 causes cardiac fibrosis. The stimulus that triggers the expression of TGF-beta1 may be repeated causing continual injury, which is associated with an increase in the activity of Ang II in heart tissue. The interplay between Ang II and TGF-beta1 causes continued activation that may result in chronic hypertension and progressive myocardial fibrosis, leading to heart failure. The regulation of TGF-beta1 secretion and action involves complex transcriptional events. Overproduction of TGF-beta1 underlies tissue fibrosis. Understanding the actions and signaling transduction of TGF-beta could lead to the development of therapeutic options that may be effective in inhibiting myocardial fibrosis triggered by TGF-beta1 in heart failure.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin II / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Cardiac Output, Low / metabolism*
  • Chronic Disease
  • Disease Progression
  • Heart Diseases / metabolism*
  • Heart Diseases / pathology*
  • Humans
  • Myocardium / metabolism
  • Myocardium / pathology
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism*
  • Ventricular Remodeling


  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Angiotensin II